Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Published: 2021-06-24 00:20:04
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Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is the combination of behaviour of an individual in group system. OCB is a concept about Behaviour of an individual, not directly or explicitly rewarded by a formal system, but it provide the better result for efficiency and effectiveness of the organisation. It is interdisciplinary under the stream of HRM, Psychology and advanced behavioral science…Etc.Behaviourial science is the psychology of studying individual traits and its features that influence in organizational environment. Organizational Citizenship behaviour is one of the emerging management concepts that are being emphasized for the organizational development. The present study has been undertaken in order to determine the factors affecting the OCB and to develop a theoretical model on OCB. The study has determined factors affecting the OCB like Organizational Loyalty, Altruism, Civic Virtue, Sportsmanship, Courtesy, Conscientiousness, Organizational Compliance, Problem Concern, Individual Initiatives, Self development. The study has suggested certain guidelines by developing a conceptual model on OCB.Keywords: Organizational citizenship behaviour, Job satisfaction, Civic virtue, AltruismContentsIt is a part of behavioral science that explains the enhancement of extra role behavior of individual in an organization. The most common behaviors of OCB are altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, sportsman ship and conscientiousness.This study contributes to understand the new facts and its consequence in organizational atmosphere. In most of the research study on organizational citizenship behaviour, the researcher focus only on positive consequences of OCB but I here focus on negative consequence of OCB like over work load, conflict in work life balance ..Etc.Numerous concepts are explained about the improvements in organizational behaviour, OCB is one of them.Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is discretionary code of behavioral attributes beyond basic job requirement. In the present competitive and challenging global corporate world, OCB has become a point of emphasis. It has been discovered that positive OCB has good influence on performance. The reasons for choosing OCB as a research ground are its positive relationship with performance. By measuring OCB we can get one step closer in increasing performance. Organizational citizenship behaviors come in a variety of forms such as loyalty, helping others, compliance, benefit etc where employees are willing to contribute their efforts and abilities to the organizations even though that is not officially required from them. Organizational citizenship behavior is defined as “”individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal rewarded system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization””(Organ1988,p.4). Allen and Meyer (1990) defined that organizational commitment is the employees’ mind condition to organization comprising three dimensions, namely affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Desimone (2002) opined that OCB will make good results for employees and organization. Moorman (1991) defined OCB as the important factor relevant to result-oriented organization.Organizational citizenship behavior helps to maximize organizational performance of firms. The key factor of OCB is achieving productivity and performance in any organization.OCB has been described necessary for the growth, success, effectiveness and productivity of any organization. In Bangladesh superior performance of corporate sector is being contributed by OCB as follows: i) Increasing co-working or managerial performance. ii) Understanding human resources so that they can be used for more productive purpose. iii) Coordinating activities within and across work groups iv) Strengthening the organization’s ability to attract and retain the best employees v) Increasing stability of the organization to adapt more effectively to environmental changes. Today, changes in organizational environments, their resultant innovations, and flexibility are emphasized, which necessarily calls for voluntary behavior from members of an organization. Accordingly, an organization should be capable of shifting its members’ attitudes and behaviors which act for organizational development from egoistic behaviors. With regard to this issue, many researchers have paid attention to OCB.The aim of OCB is to protect the organization against destructive and undesirable behaviors, which protects the organization’s healthy operations, improve incumbents’ skills and abilities and increases performance and productivity of organization by effective co-ordination. In fact extensive attention on this factor was drawn in 1990s by the research of Baterman and Organ focusing on western organizational environment.OCB consists of employee behaviors going above and beyond the regular call of duty like constructive statement about the department, expressions of personal interest in the work of others, suggestions for improvement, training for new people, respect for the spirit as well as housekeeping rules, care for organizational property, and “”punctuality and attendance well beyond standard or enforceable levels. (Organ,1990) The concept of organizational citizenship behavior appeared over two decades ago in the field of organizational behavior. Since then, there has been considerable research, primarily in the US, enabling diverse European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.7, No.31, 2015 8 understanding and interpretations of this concept (e.g., Borman and Motowidlo, 1997; Bukhari et al., 2009; Joireman et al., 2006; Podsakoff et al., 2000).In current years corporate houses in Bangladesh have made a quantum increase into a new competitive environment. Product innovation, globalization, expansion in technology and concentrated competition are prerequisitions for progressing towards high performance, effective organization and management that grant high degree of job satisfaction to employees. OCB can play a significant role in attaining these requisitions. On the other hand, job dissatisfaction may produce detrimental reactions against the achievement of the goals of the organization, OCB may result in better organizational out comes such as more productivity and profitability. The two major components of OCB are compliance, which indicates employees’ intention to follow the organizational rules, and altruism, which means employees’ voluntary behaviors to help others and to work (Organ and Ryan, 1995; Williams and Anderson, 1991). In the corporate organization employee are passing long hours. Besides there are intra and inter organization competition. Mutual behavioral pattern consisted of altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship; courtesy, civic virtue can play a productive role in this environment. Definitely institution gets advantage from special behavioral competence of its employees. It also can be nurtured by institution itself. Even now a day’s employer try to pick up their employees with best OCB vide various selection strategies. Therefore we realize scope to work on OCB in perspective of corporate environment of Bangladesh. In this case we will get two fold feedbacks as Bangladesh is a sub continental country and at the same time is an emerging developing country.In most of the studies, the researcher concentrates only on positive aspects of OCB. So I focus the negative aspects of OCB to fill the gap. We need to focus human values of the employees that every organization should treat the employees as assert.This study is used to analyze about the darken sides of OCB.From this research we get hypothesis for further research.

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